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Date:April 07, 2014

Pathway to Success in Learning and Teaching for Students with Special Educational Needs (SEN)「給有特殊教育需要的學生(SEN) 之成功教學路」

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A two-day seminar titled “Pathway to Success in Learning and Teaching for Students with Special Educational Needs (SEN)” was held on 11th and 12th February 2014 at the Youth College (KF). Professor Li-Yu Hung and Professor Hsin-Tai Lin from the Department of Special Education at National Taiwan Normal University were invited to share their experience and expertise in handling SEN students.

On the first day of the seminar, Professor Hung pointed out that in our daily teaching, teachers may come across with students who have learning disabilities as they are not making satisfactory progress regardless of teachers’ continual efforts. She explained that SEN students would encounter various types of problems during the learning process such as having difficulties in understanding, thinking, organising, having language problems (e.g. listening, speaking, reading and writing), having emotional and behavioural problems or lacking social skills. She believed that if teachers understand the difficulties faced by SEN students, they could design suitable teaching and learning materials to fit students’ needs.

Professor Hung also discussed the issues of “identity crisis” and the concept of “stages of psychological development” (Erikson, 1950, 1958 & 1963). Adolescents undergo radical changes both physically and mentally. They begin to have the mental ability to explore their own as well as others’ intentions (Erikson, 1950; Gross, 1987). During adolescence, students may have identity confusion, lack of motivation and confidence in learning and goal setting in their school lives. To help them overcome these learning barriers, Professor Hung suggested some tips as below:

  • Creating positive learning environment
  • Changing step by step
  • Simplifying learning materials
  • Giving concrete feedback
  • Applying ‘Premack principle’
  • Applying ‘Slogan method’

 

On the second day of the seminar, the issues on ‘Career counselling for students with SEN’ were discussed. To better prepare the frontline teachers and student counsellors to give support to SEN students for their transitions from study to work, Professor Lin introduced and explained different career theories, counseling techniques and interpretation of assessments. He also mentioned that there are some factors which should be considered carefully during the process of career counselling, including students’ interests, aptitude, abilities, values, beliefs, personalities and personal backgrounds. To help students understand themselves more and make sensible career, educational and life decisions, Professor Lin introduced six perspectives of career theories as below:

  • Trait-factor theory
  • Developmental theory
  • Social learning theory
  • Social cognitive career theory
  • Personal construct theory
  • Social construction theory

 

To better support our SEN students to work out their own life planning, Professor Lin proposed that “Person-Centered Planning” (PCP) could increase students’ personal self-determination for planning their future goals. “PCP discovers and acts on what is important to a person. It is a process for continual listening and learning, focusing on what are important to someone now and in the future, and acting on this in alliance with their family and their friends” (Thompson, Kilbane & Sanderson, 2008).

All in all, participants gained a better support and guidance to students with diverse learning needs through this fruitful and inspiring seminar.

To know more about various types and needs of SEN students, please visit the following SEN Websites at

https://intra.vtc.edu.hk/division/iveas/SEN/SEN/char.html

https://clt.vtc.edu.hk/resources/special-education-needs/

If you have any questions about the above article, please contact Miss Fanny Leung at fanleung@vtc.edu.hk for further details.

青年學院(葵芳)於2014年2月11及12日,舉行了名為「給有特殊教育需要的學生(SEN) 之成功教學路」硏討會。來自國立台灣師範大學特殊教學系的洪儷瑜教授及林幸台教授為我們分享了關於如何有效地支援、教導及輔導SEN學生的專業知識及經驗。

第一天研討會中,洪教授指出老師在日常教學中可能會遇到一些成績表現經常欠佳的學生,即使花了大量的精神和時間教導他們,仍然是徒勞無功,因為這類學生可能有學習障礙。她解釋﹕「有特殊教育需要的學生,是指在學習過程中出現各種困難,包括理解、思考、組織、語言(如聽、說、讀、寫)、情感、行為等問題,甚或出現社交障礙」。她相信若老師明白他們的學習困難和需要,則有助設計適合的教材以助他們學習。

洪教授還引用了艾瑞克深 (Erikson) 的社會心理發展階段的概念,來解說青少年在青春期所發生的「認同危機」(Erikson, 1950, 1958 , 1963)。青少年在成長過程中,身心將經歷重大改變,他們開始懂得分析自己和他人的行為動機 (Erikson, 1950: Gross 1987)。在過渡青春期時,青少年會對自己的身份產生混亂,因而導致他們在學習過程中缺乏動機、信心和目標。為了協助他們克服學習上的障礙,洪教授提出以下建議:

  • 締造正向的課堂環境
  • 循序漸進
  • 淺化教材
  • 提出具體回饋
  • 運用「普馬克原則」
  • 運用「口訣教學」

 

第二天硏討會討論了關於「特殊教育需要學生的職業生涯輔導」的課題。為了幫助前線老師及學生輔導員更有效地輔導學生作職前準備及規劃人生,林教授闡述了不同的生涯理論、輔導技巧和職能評估方法。他特別提到在輔導過程中,老師及學生輔導員必須仔細地考慮學生的興趣、性向、能力、價值觀、信念、性格和個人背景,才能協助他們認識自己並為自己未來,包括就業、升學及人生,作出明智的決定。林教授分享了以下不同的生涯理論﹕

  • 特質論
  • 發展論
  • 社會學習論
  • 社會認知生涯論
  • 個人建構論
  • 社會建構論

 

為了協助有特殊教育需要學生規劃自己的人生,林教授提議可透過「個人中心計劃」(PCP) 讓他們自主地制定未來的目標。「PCP旨在找出影響一個人的重要因素。通過一連串的聆聽和學習,當時人的家人及朋友展開支持的行動,並重點找出對當時人的現在和未來最重要的東西,共同規劃其個人的未來。」 ( Thompson, Kilbane & Sanderson, 2008)

透過是次具啟發性的硏討會,參加者可以更了解學生的學習能力差異,從而為他們提供更有效的支援和指導,帶領他們走出自己的成功之路。

如欲了解更多有關有特殊教育需要學生的類型及學習需要的資料,可以瀏覽以下網頁:

https://intra.vtc.edu.hk/division/iveas/SEN/SEN/char.html

https://clt.vtc.edu.hk/resources/special-education-needs/

如對本文有任何查詢,請電郵fanleung@vtc.edu.hk向梁正蕙小姐聯絡。

To obtain the presentation materials of the seminar, please click the link below:
如欲下載研討會的講義,可按此進入:

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References:

Brown, D., & Associate (Eds.). (2002) Career choice and development (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

Erikson, E. H. (1958). Young Man Luther. New York: Norton.

Erikson, E. H. (Ed.). (1963). Youth: Change and challenge. Basic books.

Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.

Gross, F.L. (1987). Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of American.

Leung, S.A. (2008). The big five career theories. In J.A. Athanasou & R.V. Esbroeck (Eds.), International handbook of career guidance (pp. 115-129). London: Springer Netherlands.

Thompson J. Kilbane J. Sanderson H. (2008) Person Centred Practice for Professionals. Open University Press