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Free and Flexible Learning with Open Educational Resources (OER)
開放教育資源的自由靈活學習

OpenEducationalResources3

English中文
What is Open Educational Resources (OER)?

Open Educational Resources (OER) are educational materials that allow individuals and institutions to adopt, adapt and reuse in their teaching contexts. Such materials encompass full courses, textbooks, streaming videos, examination papers, software and any other materials or techniques supporting learning. Resources which are protected by Creative Commons licenses (CC licenses) grant the users’ rights in sharing knowledge and creativity on condition that original copyright owners are properly acknowledged (WikiEducator, 2009). CC licenses are no substitute for “copyright”. They allow work creators to change copyright terms from “all rights reserved” to “some rights reserved” so that more users can benefit from the best new works with legal tools in the public domain (Creative Commons, 2002).

How does OER improve learning and teaching?

The OER has brought about a number of benefits to educators and learners worldwide. It improves teaching by providing open teaching resources for free and permitting reuse, revise, remix and redistribution (4Rs) of OER through open licenses.

The Wawasan Open University has conducted a survey about OER in Asia Pacific regions including Hong Kong on 420 teacher respondents in 2012. Below are some ways that OER helps to benefit teaching and learning:

Benefits to teaching Agreement (%)
Teachers can integrate more materials into the textbooks they are using. 90.18
Teachers can gain access to resources which are unavailable at schools. 85.23
Teachers can spend less time on material preparation. 76.62
The OER platform helps teachers to stay up-to-date. 71.61

(Source: www.opentextbooks.org.hk/reasons_for_using_open_educational_resources)

According to the above findings, OER enriches teaching content and teachers’ pedagogical skills while lessening their workload at the same time. The inclusion of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) into teaching helps teachers to stay in tune with the latest trends in free and flexible learning. It is worthy for educators to make good use of OER to promote quality teaching and professional development.

Benefits to learning Agreement (%)
Students’ learning in general is improved. 94.06
Students’ learning motivation is increased. 93.38
Students can gain access to the most current development of the subject. 92.27
Students become more creative as they can adapt the resources for use. 88.86
Flexible learning is achieved. 83.03
Students have the chance to develop their critical thinking skills as they have to select the OER suitable for their own use. 76.03

(Source: www.opentextbooks.org.hk/reasons_for_using_open_educational_resources)

Likewise, students showed positive feedback to the employment of OER in learning. Over three-quarters of respondents agreed OER promotes learning effectiveness and motivation in addition to enhancing their creativity and critical thinking skills. It is likely that students would prefer flexible learning to acquiring up-to-date knowledge about the discipline in the future.

A Local Example of OER Repository

Supported by the Chief Executive’s Community Project Fund, the Open University of Hong Kong has launched a website for Open Textbooks (http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/) for visitors’ adoption and adaptation. Over 100 online e-books at secondary and tertiary levels are now available for teachers, students and members of the public to download and use free of charge. The textbook covers a wide range of disciplines including Arts and Humanities, Business, Science and Engineering, Information and Technology, Social Science and Education. Why don’t you sign up at the website to access the open books and enjoy the benefits of open educational resources?

References:

Creative Commons. (2002). What is Creative Commons? Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
https://creativecommons.org/about/

OERu. (2014). OERu Courses, Partners and News. Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
https://oeru.org/

The Open University. (2014). Open Textbooks in Hong Kong: Reasons for Using Open Educational Resources (OER). Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/reasons_for_using_open_educational_resources

WikiEducator. (2009). OER Foundation. What are OERs? Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
http://wikieducator.org/WikiEducator:OER_Foundation/FAQs/Open_Education_Resources/

甚麼是開放教育資源?

開放教育資源是指容許個人和機構在其教學環境中採用、改編和重用的教材。 這些教材包括整個課程、 教科書、串流影片、試卷、 軟件及任何其他支援學習的材料或技術。 對於受創作共用授權條款(創用CC授權)保障的資源,用戶只需適當地註明該資源的原有版權擁有者,便可分享它的知識和創意(WikiEducator,2009)。 創用CC授權不能取代「版權 」。 它們允許創作者將版權條款從「保留所有權利」更改為「保留某些權利」,以便更多用戶可以利用公共領域的合法工具獲得最佳的新作品 (Creative Commons,2002)。

開放教育資源如何促進學與教?

開放教育資源為全世界的教育家和學習者帶來了許多好處。透過開放版權條款,他們有機會使用開放教育資源,並可重覆使用、修改、重新整合和重新分配,從而優化教學。

宏願開放大學在2012年對亞太地區(包括香港)的420名教師進行了一項關於開放教育資源的調查。以下是有關開放教育資源有助教學的的調查結果:

對教學的好處 贊同 (%)
教師可以將更多的材料集成到他們現用的教科書中。 90.18
教師可以獲得在學校無法獲得的資源。 85.23
教師節省了準備教材的時間。 76.62
開放教育資源平台可幫助教師掌握最新資訊。 71.61

(資料來源:www.opentextbooks.org.hk/reasons_for_using_open_educational_resources
譯本:教學中心;原文請參考英文版本)

根據上述調查結果,開放教育資源豐富了教學內容和教師的教學技能,同時減輕了他們的工作量。 將資訊和通訊科技融入教學可以幫助教師保持自由靈活學習的最新趨勢。開放教育資源值得教育者運用,促進優質教學和專業發展。

對教學的好處 贊同 (%)
學生的整體學習有所改善。 94.06
學生的學習動機得到提升。 93.38
學生可以獲得學科的最新發展資訊。 92.27
學生變得更有創意,因為他們可以修改現有資源來使用。 88.86
實現靈活學習。 83.03
學生有機會發展他們的批判性思維能力,因為他們須要選擇適合自己使用的開放教育資源。 76.03

(資料來源:www.opentextbooks.org.hk/reasons_for_using_open_educational_resources
譯本:教學中心;原文請參考英文版本)

同樣地,學生對利用開放教育資源學習的回饋也很正面。 超過四分之三的受訪者同意除了提高他們的創意和批判性思維能力之外,開放教育資源還提高學習效能和動機。 調查結果顯示,將來學生很可能傾向採用靈活的學習方法去獲取學科的最新知識。

開放教育資源儲存庫的本地示例

在行政長官社會資助計劃的支持下,香港公開大學推出了一個開放教科書網頁(http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/),供瀏覽者使用及改編。現時已有超過一百本中學及大專程度的網上電子課本可供教師、學生和市民免費下載和使用。 這些教科書涵蓋了藝術與人文、商業、科學與工程、資訊科技、社會科學和教育學科。大家不妨到有關網站登記以獲取免費書目並享受開放教育資源的好處吧!

參考文獻:

Creative Commons. (2002). What is Creative Commons? Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
https://creativecommons.org/about/

OERu. (2014). OERu Courses, Partners and News. Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
https://oeru.org/

The Open University. (2014). Open Textbooks in Hong Kong: Reasons for Using Open Educational Resources (OER). Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/reasons_for_using_open_educational_resources

WikiEducator. (2009). OER Foundation. What are OERs? Retrieved November 10, 2016, from
http://wikieducator.org/WikiEducator:OER_Foundation/FAQs/Open_Education_Resources/